Search for the ‘Super Battery’ is near accomplished

Search for the ‘Super Battery’ is near accomplished

  BATTERY

(Working of battery, types of battery, search of Super Battery)

Evolution of Battery

to Super Battery

Battery
Battery

Renewable energy VS fossil fuel
In last few decades, batteries have made great impacts in our personal life. We could not think of present Civilization’s development without battery, but we are not completely the reliable on battery power. We have the alternative energy source, among them which we are using heavily is fossil fuel which can generate power with much more energy density, but the problem is that the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuel making our planet Earth hell. So we have to get rid of fossil fuel to make our planet inhabitable for future generation. We can use renewable energy as Solar and wind power, but the problem is that what could We do on a cloudy day or in a day with no breeze. There comes the question of storing energy or battery. Therefore we need a super battery that can store energy with huge energy density and for this scientist are trying to approach it.

How battery works

The battery is very simple. It has three parts, an anode, a cathode and the electrolyte. Electricity is the flow of electrons through a conductive material and battery also done this very well. The chemical reaction between anode and electrolyte in a battery produce electrons on anode this makes an electrical difference between anode and cathode and therefore electrons repel each other and want to go to the cathode for build up a stable position, but they can’t go straight because electrolyte works as an insulator. Here if we add anode and cathode with a conductive wire then electron flow from anode to cathode and if we add a bulb in the circuit it lights up because of electrons flow.

Qualities of a good battery

Making a simple battery is very easy but making a super battery is not so simple. Anything which can store energy is very dangerous. A Super Battery will have to be three qualities not costly, safe and with high energy density.Energy density means how much energy a battery could store in a given volume.

Types of batteries

The first battery was invented by physicist Alessandro Volta in 1799, that is called Voltie pile used Zinc can and Copper for electrodes and Brine-soaked paper as an electrolyte.

The  Daniell cell battery invented in 1836 used a Copper pot filled with Copper- Sulphate solution, which was further immersed in an earthenware container filled with sulphuric acid and the Zinc electrode.

The lead-acid battery was first rechargeable battery invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Plante, that revolutionize the world.

Nickel Cadmium battery was invented in 1899 by Waldemar Jungner in Sweden, but they are not being used because of toxic Cadmium.

The inexpensive alkaline battery was invented by Canadian engineer Lewis Urry in the 1950s, using Zinc and Manganese Oxide in the electrodes and potassium Hydroxide as the electrolyte.

Like NiCd battery, Nickel-Metal Hydride(NiMH) battery use hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of toxic Cadmium which is environment-friendly and also help to increase energy density.


Lithium-metal battery

Being lightweight and willing to give up electrons easily lithium is nearly a perfect material as a negative electrode in a battery. But there is a big problem if we want Lithium metal battery to be rechargeable. In a battery, there is a separator between two electrodes to avoid short circuit but the separator is not completely solid it has many tiny holes. When a battery discharges there is a flow of negative charge electrons in the outer circuit and also a flow of positive charge Lithium-ions inside a battery through the Separator’s holes to the positive
electrode; as well as in recharging the battery Lithium ions come back through these holes and lithium metal as electrode makes the trouble. Scientists have discovered overtime the returning lithium-ions tend to clamp on the metal surface and build up a tree-like structure called Dendrites. Over time the Dendrites grow in length and poke through the Separator’s holes and eventually reach the positive electrode that makes short-circuit which can cause an explosion.

Lithium-ion battery

As a solution for the dangerous problem of lithium-metal battery, Sony released first commercial lithium-ion battery in 1991. In a lithium-ion battery, the negative Lithium metal electrode replaced by carbon electrode that holds many individual Lithium-ion in its apartment-like chamber. When lithium-ion battery discharges it sends all its Lithium ions to positive electrode, similarly in recharging send them back but now all the Chambers in the negative carbon electrode stop them from piling up to dangerous Dendrites, that makes Lithium-ion batteries safer than Lithium metal batteries but at a heavy price, lithium-ion batteries hold far less energy than lithium- metal battery.

Solid electrolyte battery

The lithium-ion battery is safer than Lithium- metal battery, it does not mean completely safe. In last decade we heard about many battery disasters all about Lithium-ion batteries. For the sake of safety with high energy density scientist are now researching to make battery with solid electrolyte which is not flammable and the solid electrolyte can also prevent Dendrites physically to grow and here we could also able to use Lithium metal as electrode instead of Lithium-ion which will increase energy density twice, though it is in experimental level we will see it at market in short .

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